Question Answer
What was the goal of Puritans? To purify the Church of England of all Catholic traditions
What was the name of the most radical group of Puritans? Seperatists (aka Pilgrims)
The Seperatists established what in the 1620's? Plymouth Plantation
Plymouth was the ________ permanent English settlement in the colonies. Second
What did the Puritans believe? They had a specials covenant with God, and to fulfill their part, they created a moral society for others to follow.
What was the Mayflower Compact? A document that established a self-governing colony based on the majority rule of church members.
Who signed the Mayflower Compact? 35 saints (pilgrims) and 67 strangers (non-pilgrims)
Saints were afraid that who would take over? Strangers
Half of the Pilgrims died because of ________. Scurvy, smallpox, and crop failure.
Between 1620 and 1630, there were only ____ Plymouth colonists. 300
How many pilgrims left England for the Americas? 60,000
What was the Bible commonwealth that the Puritans established? Everyone is guided by the English law and the Bible and everyone works together for the common good.
What was the criteria to be considered a freeman? Adult, male, church members, voted, participated in government, could own land, and believed in predestination.
Puritans were very literate. Laws required ________. Schooling, reading, and understanding of the Bible.
Puritans created a _________ type of government. Oligarchy- only a select few could govern.
True or False: Puritans had no political freedom and were required to go to church every day
What did Puritans believe in? Original sin and the putting-out system.
Occupation was a _____ to the Puritans? Religious Duty
People married within _________. Social Class
John Cabot claimed _________ for England. New Foundland, Nova Scotia, and all of New England.
Why did the British delay colonizing? They were in the middle of the Protestant Reformation.
What was the Protestant Reformation? A religious upheaval that created alternative churches to Catholicism.
What was a Joint-Stock Company? Investors start the company by pooling their wealth and eventually share in profits and losses. (first type of government in New England.)
Investors demanded quick return on their investment so colonists tried to satisfy them with what? Discovery of gold
What were the first two companies to begin colonization for New England? The Plymouth and London companies.
Why was the location of Jamestown chosen? Easy to defend; peninsula
What were indentured servants? Worked for 4-7 years then were free. Were fed, clothed, and sheltered by the stockholders at this time.
Why did many people go to Jamestown? To escape debt, religious persecution, etc.
True or False: Jamestown was intended to be a permanent settlement. False
People in Jamestown were set on finding _____ ASAP which nearly led to disaster because ____________. 1. Gold2. No wells were dug, no crops were planted, no shelter built, etc.
Native Americans _____ the settlers. Aided
Who rose to power to stop the chaos in Jamestown? Captain John Smith
What did Dales Code of Law state? No slander, no trading with Native Americans without permission, no killing, etc.
What makes and breaks the colonies? Tobacco
What leads to conflicts and warfare with the Native Americans? Desire for more land to grow tobacco.
Who receives credit for the discovery of the Americas? Christopher Columbus
What was Columbus trying to do? Find a better route to Asia
Why did Kind Ferdinand and Queen Isabella change their minds about Columbus? The reconquista (reconquering Spain from the Muslims)
What did Columbus promise? God, gold, and glory
Columbus set sail on ____ ships with a crew of ____ men. 1. 32. 90
True or False: Initially, Columbus thought he had reached Asia. True
What changed the good relationship between the natives and the Europeans? The Encomienda System.
What was the Encomienda System? A harsh working system created by Columbus for the natives. They were forced to mine gold, build homes, and provide food.
Why did the Encomienda System end? Native American populations dwindled by 90%.
Who did Europeans begin importing to take the place of Native Americans? Africans
What was the Columbian Exchange? Items were sent from the Americas to Europe, Africa, and Asia. (and vice-versa)
Who were conquistadors? Spanish conquerors who followed explorers to the Americas. They sought after gold and silver as well as land.
Who did Hernan Cortes conquer? Aztecs
Who did Francisco Pizarro conquer? Incas
Conquistadors were responsible for the first permanent U.S. settlement at __________. St. Augustine's in Florida
What was the Treaty of Tordesillas? An agreement between Portugal and Spain in which they agreed to divide the western hemisphere between them to avoid conflict.
Peninsulares Spaniards born in Spain
Criolles Spaniards born in the colonies
Mestizos Born of European-Indian unions
Mulattoes Born of European-African descent
Social Structure in the Spanish Colonies 1. Peninsulares2. Criolles3. Mestizos4. Mullatoes5. Native Americans6. Africans7. Zambos
Zambos Born of African-Indian Ancestry
WS Exploration Test

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