Question Answer
What are the Crusades? The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most commonly known Crusaders are the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Islamic rule.
What were the reasons for the Crusades/the Crusades fought for? To capture Jerusalem, recapture Christian territory or defend Christians in non-Christian lands, resolve conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, gain political or territorial advantage, combat paganism and heresy, and pilgrims as well (in general)
During roughly how many Crusades was Pope Urban II the pope in? 2, because Pope Urban II was pope during the People's Crusade and during the First Crusade as well.
How many total Crusade were there (just the ones we've talked about in class)? 5: First Crusade (1096-1099), People's Crusade (1096), Second Crusade (1147-1149), Third Crusade (1189-1192), and the Fourth Crusade (1202-1204)
How did the First Crusade begin? The First Crusade arose after a call to arms in a 1095 sermon by Pope Urbam II.
Which two groups of inhabitants fought together to defend Jerusalem? The Jewish and Muslim inhabitants fought together to defend Jerusalem.
Who or what allowed the initial success of the First Crusade? The fragmentation of the Muslim east allowed the initial success of the First Crusade.
What is it that happened regarding the Crusaders in July of 1099? The crusaders entered the city in July of 1099 and proceeded to massacre the inhabitants and pillage the city
How were the four 'crusader states' created and what are they? The four 'crusader states' were technically created after the crusaders massacred the inhabitants of the city and pillaged the city in July of 1099. The four 'crusader states' were all around sacred sights and located in the KIngdom of Jerusalem
What is the People's Crusade? (part 1 of 6) The People's Crusade occured in 1096. Bands of peasants and low-ranking knights organized and set off for Jerusalem on their own. The peasant population had been afflicted by drought, famine, and disease for many years before 1096.
What is the People's Crusade? (part 2 of 6) Some of them seemed to have envisioned the crusade as an escape from these hardships. 40,000 Crusaders of mostly unskilled fighters, including women and children.
What is the People's Crusade? (part 3 of 6) A charismatic monk and powerful orator named Peter the Hermit of Amien was the spiritual leader of the movement. He had vigorously preached the Crusade throughout Northern France and Flanders.
What is the People's Crusade? (part 4 of 6) He claimed to have been appointed to preach by Christ himself. Peter had with him a letter he claimed had fallen from heaven instructing Christians to seize Jerusalem in anticipation of the apocalypse.
What is the People's Crusade? (part 5 of 6) Crusaders destroyed most of the Jewish communities along their route to the Holy Land. If the people didn't conquer the Holy Land, then an apocalypse would happen/begin. MOB RULE. The crusade was made up of German, French, and Italians.
What is the People's Crusade? (part 6 of 6) Each group ended up divided and had their own ruler by the time they reached Turkey. They fought over who should be in control, resources, and over who got to pillage. They were massacred by the Turks.
What is the Second Crusade? (part 1 out of 3) The Second Crusade was from 1147-1149. The crusader states were under constant attack. The second crusade was organized to help defend those territories. A large force of the crusade went by ship, and bad weather forced them to land in Portugal.
What is the Second Crusade? (part 2 out of 3) The Pope authorizes the expansion of the crusade into the Iberian Peninsula in the context of the Reconquista. Eventually it makes it to the Holy Land, and distrust sets in and causes it to fail.
What is the Second Crusade? (part 3 out of 3) The Crusader Lands lose most of their territory and struggle to exist.
What is the Third Crusade? (part 1 of 3) The Third Crusade was from 1189 to 1192. The campaign was largely successful, capturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversing most of Saladin's conquests.
What is the Third Crusade? (part 2 of 3) But it failed to capture Jerusalem, the emotional and spiritual motivation of the Crusade. A treaty granting Muslim control over Jerusalem but allowing unarmed Christian pilgrims and merchants to visit the city.
What is the Third Crusade? (part 3 of 3) The success of the Third Crusade allowed the Crusaders to maintain considerable states in Cyprus and on the Syrian coast. However, the failure to recapture Jerusalem would lead to the Fourth Crusade. The Third Crusade opened up trade as well.
What is the Fourth Crusade? (part 1 of 5) The Fourth Crusade was from 1202-1204. It was called up by Pope Innocent III, originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt.
What is the Fourth Crusade? (part 2 of 5) Instead, a sequence of events (SNEAKY VENETIANS) led to the Crusaders sacking the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Christian-controlled Byzantine Empire. Considered the final part of the Great Schism between the eastern and western churches.
What is the Fourth Crusade? (part 3 of 5) Led to the decline of Christianity in eastern Europe and the Middle East. The Pope and the other leaders sent envoys to Venice, Genoa, and other city-states in 1200 to negotiate a contract for transport to Egypt.
What is the Fourth Crusade? (part 4 of 5) The commercial rivalry between the Republic of Venice and the Byzantine Empire and the living memory of the Massacre of the Latins, led to the crusade being diverted to Constantinople. The Venetians set up the "Latin Empire" (1204-1264).
What is the Fourth Crusade? (part 5 of 5) The puppet empire for the Venetian traders.
When was the last and final crusade? 1272
Were these crusade successful or not? No these crusades were unsuccessful, and are only about maintaining the trading routes that were held by the 'Christians'
What are/were the effects of the Crusades? (part 1 of 3) Venice and Genoa will flourish; Growth in the system of indulgences; Crusades will have a role in the creation and institutionalization of the military and inquisitions; Consolidated the papal leadership of the Latin Church.
What are/were the effects of the Crusades? (part 2 of 3) Creates lasting barrier between the Latin world and both the Islamic and Orthodox religions; Increased trade; Increased power of feudal monarchs; Knowledge from the ancient world is brought back: Math, sciences, technologies, etc…
What are/were the effects of the Crusades? (part 3 of 3) Schools begin to spring up all around Europe, the first universities were established, new writings from these schools create vernacular.

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