Term Definition
Crusades Religious wars
Holy land The land around Jerusalem
Pope Urban II The pope during 1071, he led a crusade against the Turks. DEUS VULT
Saladin In 1177 he over-threw the Fatimids and took the throne.
Holy land the region where the site of the Holy Temple of Jews was located and where Jesus had lived and taught
Pope Urban II Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims,starting the Crusades
Crusades A series of religious wars launched by European Christians in the middle ages
Saladin Muslims sultan who overthrew the Seljuk Turks and drove out the Christians out of Jerusalem, leading to the third crusade
Richard the Lion- Hearted King of England who led forces against the army of Saladin
Hanseatic League a group of cities and towns in Northern Germandy that worked together to promote & protect trade
Credit The promise of later payment for goods bought
Guilds Trade organizations in which all members set standards and prices of theirs products
Apprentice Someone who spent several years with a skilled crafter to learn basic skills of the craft
Journeyman A person who has learned the basics of a career as an apprentice but is still learning from masters and has not yet opened his shop
Gothic Building style that used advances in engineering to make churches taller and brighter than earlier churches
Flying Buttresses Supports that helped hold up the church wall from the outside. allowing for much higher ceilings and interior that had no columms
Illumination the process of decorating a written manuscript with pictures or designs
Hildegard of Bingen A famous medieval nun who was both a poet and composer
Troubadours wandering singers who performed epics and romances
Geoffrey Chaucer English author of the Canterbury tales
Dante Alighieri Italian author of the Divine Comedy
Thomas Aquinas Influential scholar who argued that classical ideas could be used to improve people's understandings of christian teachings
Scholasticism A combination of Christian Faith and rational thought set forth by Aquinas
Heresy Beliefs that oppose the church's official teachings
Friars Members of religious order who took vows of poverty and obedience and lived among the people to whom they preached
Hundred years' war A war between Britian and France that began was a dispute over the throne of France
Joan of Arc Peasant girl who led the French into battle during the Hundred Year's war and won several victories before she was captured,tried,and executed by the British.
Henry VII Nobleman whose rise to king ended the War of Roses and started a new era in English history
Black Death A devastating plague that swept across Europe between 1347 and 1351
The High Middle Ages

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