Question Answer
science the investigation of natural events and of the new information that results from those investigations
observation the act of using one or more of your senses to gather information and take note of what occurs
hypothesis a possible explanation for an observation that can be tested by scientific investigations
scientific theory an explanation of observations or events that is based on knowledge gained from many observations and investigations
scientific law a rule that describes a pattern in nature
variable any factor that can have more than one value
independent variable the factor that is changed by the investigator to observe how it affects a dependent variable
dependent variable the factor a scientist observes or measures during an experiment
map legend a key that lists all the symbols on the map
longitude the distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian
latitude the distance in degrees north or south of the equator
elevation the height above sea level of any point on Earth's surface
relief the difference between the highest and lowest point in an area
geologic map show the surface geology of the mapped area
physical map use lines, shading, and color to indicate features such as mountains, lakes, and streams
relief map use shading and shadows to identify mountains and flat areas
political map show the boundaries between countries, states, counties, or townships
geosphere the solid part of the Earth
gravity an attractive force that exists between all objects that have mass
density the mass per unit volume of a substance
atmosphere thin layer of gases surrounding the Earth
hydrosphere a system containing all Earth's water
biosphere a system containing all living organisms on Earth
landform a topographic feature formed by processes that shape Earth's surface
topography scientists use the term to describe the shape of a geographic area
glacier a large mass of ice, formed by snow accumulation on land, that moves slowly across Earth's surface
summit highest point of a hill or mountain
mineral a naturally occuring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
crystalization the process by which atoms form a solid with an orderly, repeating pattern
magma molten rock stored beneath Earth's surface
lava magma that erupts onto Earth's surface
crystal a solid of a chemical substance with a regular, repeating arrangement of its atoms
streak the color of a mineral's powder
hardness the resistance of a mineral to being scratched
cleavage the breaking of a mineral along a smooth, flat surface
fracture the breaking of a mineral along a rough or irregular surface
density the mass per unit volume of a substance
sedimentary rock form from sediment that is compacted and cemented, consist of bits of rock and organic matter such as shells and plant matter
igneous rock form when magma or lava cools and hardens
metamorphic rock form when rock changes because of heat and pressure beneath Earth's surface
rock a naturally occuring solid composed of minerals, rock fragments, and sometimes other materials such as organic matter
rock cycle the series of processes that change on type of rock into another type of rock
Hydrogen H
Carbon C
Oxygen O
Sodium Na
Iron Fe
Zinc Zn
Science 8 Midterm Science 8 midterm review vocabulary

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