Term Definition
adrenal glands wedges of glandular and neuroendocrine tissue adhering to the top of the kidneys by a fibrous capsule
adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones important for many regulatory processes including regulation of the long-term stress response, blood pressure and blood volume, and fluid and electrolyte balance
adrenal medulla an extension of the autonomic nervous system (regulates body homeostasis).
general adaptation syndrome (GAS) pattern of the body's response to stress consisting of the alarm reaction, stage of resistance, and stage of exhaustion.
aldosterone A steroid, important in the regulation of the concentration of sodium and potassium ions in urine, sweat, and saliva
glucocorticoids hormones produced in the zona fasciculata that play a major role in glucose metabolism. An example is cortisol.
androgens A class of steroid sex hormones, produced in the gonads during puberty and most of adulthood
chromaffin postganglionic SNS neurons that compose the medullary tissue and produce epinephrine and norepinephrine
epinephrine also known as adrenaline, is an amine, stimulates the fight or flight response
norepinephrine also known as noradrenaline, is an amine, stimulates the fight or flight response
pancreas organ located posterior to the bottom half of the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes, and the hormones glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide.
alpha cell a protein that produces glucagon, increases blood glucose levels
beta cell a protein that produces insulin, reduces blood glucose levels
delta cell a protein that secretes somatostatin, inhibits insulin and glucagon release
PP cell a protein secretes pancreatic polypeptide hormone, which plays a role in appetite
glucagon stimulates the liver to covert glycogen to glucose, convert amino acids into glucose, and the breakdown of triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol
insulin facilitates the uptake of glucose into body cells
testosterone hormone produced by male testes, considered a steroid, important in the development of the male reproductive system, maturation of sperm cells, and development of male secondary sex characteristics
estrogen hormone produced by female ovaries, considered a steroid, important in the development of female secondary sex characteristics
progesterone hormone produced by female ovaries, considered a steroid, contributes to regulation of the menstrual cycle and preparing for and maintaining pregnancy
leptin protein manufactured by adipose cells, released in response to food consumption
atrial natriuretic peptid (ANP) hormone produced by cells of the atria that signals the kidneys to reduce sodium reabsorption
erythropoietin (EPO) hormone produced by the kidneys in response to low oxygen levels
SC246 U1 T4 Adrenal Gland, Pancreas, Gonads

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