Term Definition
1. informed consent2.subject can withdraw at any time 3.Information provided about how to contact researcher after 4.confidentiality 5.if deceptions occurs, must remove misconceptions at the end. 6.Those working with animals/humans must be trai What are the 6 APA ethical guidelines
experimental research an experiment where the researcher manipulates one variable, and control/randomizes the rest of the variables. It has a control group, the subjects have been randomly assigned between the groups, and the researcher only tests one effect at a time.
operational definition A statement of the procedures or ways in which a researcher is going to measure behaviors or qualities
independent variable something to examine (and manipulate)
dependent variable as the variable that is being measured. It is this variable that we, as the researchers, look at for change.
control group chosen with the same demographics and characteristics as the treatment group but receives no 'treatment' and is used as a comparison.
experimental logic A proposition of pure logic which can be quantified and employed as the basis of physical experiment. Only one example is known to exist: Bell's Theorem.
random assignment a commonly used experimental technique to help ensure that the treatment group and the control group are the same before treatment.
extraneous variables Any factor or variable that causes an effect (or potential affects) other than the variable being studied
cofounding variables an extraneous variable whose presence affects the variables being studied so that the results you get do not reflect the actual relationship between the variables under investigation.
population everyone who could possibly be a participant in the study
sample a relatively small number of participants drawn from an entire population.
stratified sample used when the population is composed of several subgroups that may differ in the behavior or attribute that you are studying.
single blind procedure a specific research procedure in which the researchers (and those involved in the study) do not tell the participants if they are being given a test treatment or a control treatment.
double blind procedure experimental procedure in which both the patient and the staff are ignorant (blind) as to the condition (or group) that the participant is in.
quasi experimental design no random assignment of participants to groups.
pre-experiemental design Pre-experimental design is a research format in which some basic experimental attributes are used while some are not. This factor causes an experiment to not qualify as truly experimental
true experimental design A true experimental design is one in which the researcher manipulates the Independent Variable (or variables) to observe its effect on some behavior or cognitive process (the dependent variable) while using random assignment of participants to groups in o
replication the study is conducted again in the same way but using different participants.
experimental bias a process where the scientists performing the research influence the results, in order to portray a certain outcome.
sampling bias a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others.
subject bias is a tendency of participants (subjects) in an experiment to consciously or subconsciously act in a way that they think the experimenter/researcher wants them to act. It often occurs when subjects realize or know the purpose of the study.
self-report bias a type of survey, questionnaire, or poll in which respondents read the question and select a response by themselves without researcher interference. any method which involves asking a participant about their feelings, attitudes, beliefs and so on.
social desireability bias a type of response bias that is the tendency of survey respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others.
response set the human tendency to answer questions in ways that are the most complimentary, or flattering, to the respondent rather than telling the absolute truth.
placebo effect any substance that is not known to have any pharmacological effects (produces no changes in an oranism) that is made to look like an active ("real") drug. Sometimes the act of taking a pill produces an effect if the person believes the pill is active.
correlation research a quantitative method of research in which you have 2 or more quantitative variables from the same group of participants, & you are trying to determine if there is a relationship (or covariation) between the 2 variables
naturalistic observation the researcher allows behavior to occur without interference or intervention at all.
case study use of a descriptive research approach to obtain an in-depth analysis of a person, group, or phenomenon. ….A variety of techniques may be employed including personal interviews, direct-observation, psychometric tests, and archival records.
survey a data collection tool used to gather information about individuals.
correlation coefficient This is a measure of the direction (positive or negative) and extent of the relationship between two sets of scores.
positive and negative correlation Scores with a positive correlation coefficient go up and down together A negative correlation coefficient indicates that as one score increases, the other score decreases
pearsons R is a measure of the linear correlation between two variables X and Y.
scatter diagram a visual representation of the relationships or associations between two numerical variables, which are represented as points (or dots), each plotted at a horizontal axis (y-axis) and vertical axis (y-axis).
coefficient of determination used in the building of statistical models whose primary purpose to is to predict future outcomes. It is also used for testing hypotheses on the basis of other information.
descriptive statistics used to describe the basic features of the data in a study.
standard deviation a measure of variation (or variability) that indicates the typical distance between the scores of a distribution and the mean.
z-score a statistic that tells us where a score lies in relation to the population mean. A positive Z-Score means that the score is above the mean, while a negative Z-Score means that the score is below the mean.
percentiles used in statistics as a way of determining rank or order in relation to other points in a distribution of numbers or scores. A percentile is a value below the point where a particular percent of scores or observations falls.
frequency distribution a break down
histogram A histogram is very similar to a bar graph in which each bar represents some class or element. difference between a bar graph and a histogram is the bars in the histogram actually touch each other to show that there are no gaps in between the classes.
frequency polygon a line graph made by connecting the top center scores of the columns of a frequency histogram.
symmetrical distribution a situation in which the values of variables occur at regular frequencies, and the mean, median and mode occur at the same point.
skewed distribution distribution is negatively skewed, to the left, if the scores fall toward the higher side of the scale and there are very few low scores. positively skewed distributions, the mean is usually greater than the median, which is always greater than the mode.
variability statistics that describe the amount of difference and spread in a data set.
the normal distribution "bell curve" describe how traits are distributed through a population
68-95-99 rule a shorthand used to remember the percentage of values that lie within a band around the mean in a normal distribution
inferential statistics makes inferences about populations using data drawn from the population. the statistician will collect a sample or samples from the millions of residents and make inferences about the entire population using the sample.
null hypothesis the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between specified populations, any observed difference being due to sampling or experimental error.
research hypothesis the statement created by researchers when they speculate upon the outcome of a research or experiment.
statistical significance When you hear that the results of an experiment were ______ ______, it means that you can be 95% sure the results are not due to chance
psych idk

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