Term Definition
Biguanides: mechanism of action decrease production of glucose, decrease intestinal absorption of glucoseincreased uptake of glucose by tissues, do not increase insulin secretion
Biguanides: adverse effects primarily affects G.I. tract, metallic taste, reduced vitamin B 12, does not cause hypoglycemia
Sulfonylureas: mechanism of action stimulate insulin secretion from the beta cells of the pancreas does increasing insulin levels, BETA CELL FUNCTION MUST BE PRESENT, improve sensitivity to insulin and tissues, result in lower blood glucose levels
Sulfonylureas: adverse effects hypoglycemia, hematologic effects, nausea, epigastric fullness, heartburn
Glinides: mechanism of action action similar to sulfonylureas, increase insulin secretion from the pancreas
Glinides: adverse effects headache, hypoglycemic effects, dizziness, Weight gain, joint pain, flu like symptoms
Thiazolidinediones: mechanism of action decrease insulin resistance, INSULIN SENSITIZING DRUGS, increased glucose uptake, inhibit glucose and triglyceride production in the liver
Thiazolidinediones: adverse effects moderate weight gain, edema, anemia, hepatic toxicity
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors: mechanism of action reversibly inhibit the enzyme alpha-glucosidase in the small intestine, RESULT IN DELAYED ABSORPTION OF GLUCOSE, must be taken with meals
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors: adverse effect diarrhea, abdominal pain, do not cause hypoglycemia, Hyperinsulinemia, or a weight gain
Amylin mimetic: mechanism of action SLOWS GASTRIC EMPTYING, suppresses glucagon secretion, subcutaneous injection
Incretin mimetic: mechanism of action enhances glucose driven insulin secretion from beta cells, only use for type two diabetes, exanatide (byetta) injection device
Sulfonylureas: interactions allergic cross-sensitivity may occur with loop diuretics and sulfonamide antibiotics
amylin mimetics: interactions concurrent insulin doses need to be reduced, take one hour before other medications
Oral diabetic drugs

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