Term Definition
Neuron(s) Nerve cell(s)
Sensory neurons allow you : FeelTasteSmellHearSee
Motor neurons Allow you to move
Stimulus (stimuli) Neurons respond to environmental change(s)
Neurologist Specialist in the study of nerves
Neuralgia + neurodynia Pain in a nerve(s)
Neuropathy Disease condition of a nerve(s)
Neuritis Inflammation of a nerve(s)
Polyneuritis Inflammation of many nerves
Neuroma Tumor or mass in a nerve(s)
Neurasthenia Nerve weakness
Neurotomy Surgical incision of a nerve(s)
Neurectomy Surgical removal of a nerve(s)
Neuroplasty Surgical repair of a nerve(s)
Neurorrhaphy Suturing a nerve(s)
Bradykinesia Condition of slow movement
Hyperkinesia Condition of excessive movement * refers to RLS (restless leg syndrome + ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)
Analgesia Condition of no pain
Algesiometer Instrument to measure pain
Algesiometry Process of measuring pain
Anesthesia Condition of no feeling or nervous sensation
Anesthesiologist Specialist in the study of no feeling or nervous sensation
Hyperesthesia Condition of excessive feeling or nervous sensation
Hypoesthesia Condition of deficient feeling or nervous sensation
Paralysis Inability to feel and inability to move
Monoplegia Condition of paralysis of one limb
Quadriplegia Condition of paralysis of four limbs *caused by SCI (spinal cord injury)
Paraplegia Condition of paralysis of the lower trunk and both legs *caused by SCI (spinal cord injury)
Hemiplegia Condition of paralysis of the reight side of the body or left side of the body *caused by brain trauma
Partial paralysis Feeling without movement or movement without feeling
Monoparesis Partial paralysis of one limb
Encephalopathy Disease condition of the brain *caused by HIV
Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain
Encephalocele Herniation of the brain
Encephalogram A record (x-ray) of the brain
Encephalograph Machine to record (x-ray) the brain
Encephalography Process of recording (x-raying) the brain
Echoencephalogram A record of the brain using sound
Echoencephalograph Machine to record the brain using sound
Echoencephalography Process of recording the brain using sound
Electroencephalogram (EEG) A record of electrical activity in the brain
Electroencephalography Process of recording electrical activity in the brain
Cerebrum Largest part of the brain
Cerebral cortex Outer portion of the cerebrum
Cerebral medulla Middle or inner portion of the cerebrum
Crainocerebral Pertaining to the crainium and cerebrum
Cerebral lobes Sections of the cerebrum
Lobotomy Surgical incision of a lobe
Lobectomy Surgical removal of a lobe
Ventricles Chambers within the cerebrum
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Fluid circulating throughout the cerebral ventricles and spinal canal
Lumbar puncture aka Spinal tap (LP) Surgical puncture between the lumbar vertebrae to obtain cerebrospinal fliud (CSF)
Lumbar vertebrae Lower back bones
Cerebrum contains your individuality: MemoriesHopeDreamsWishesFantasiesImaginationDesires
Cerebral thrombosis Abnormal condition of a thrombus in a cerebral artery
Cerebral infarction Occlusion of a cerebral artery
Cerebral angiography Process of recording (x-raying) vessels of the cerebrum
Cerebral aneurysm Septum weakness in the cerebrum
Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBJ) Cerebral concussion *can cause neurological deficits
Neurological deficits : Temporary LOCAmnesiaDisorientation aka confusionCephalalgia (HA)LethargyN+VTinnitus (ringing or buzzing sound)Vertigo
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) Multiple cerebral concussions can cause a degenerative brain disease
Cerebral contusion Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causing bleeding in or around the cerebrum *can cause permanent neurological deficits
Mental age Measurement of a person's ability to think and understand based on the age at which an average person reaches the same level of ability
Mentality Particular way of thinking
Psychiatry Treatment of the mind
Psychologist Specialist in the study of the mind
Psychogenic Pertaining to creation by the mind
Psychopathy Disease condition of the mind
Psychosomatic pathology The study of diseases of the mind and the body
Cerebellum Located at the posterior base of the brain *balance and coordination
Cerebrocerebellar Pertaining to the cerebrum and cerebellum
Cerebellitis Inflammation of the cerebellum
Ataxia Condition of no coordination
Dystaxia Condition of difficult coordination
Brain stem consists of: MidbrainPonsMedulla oblongata
Physiology of brain stem: VentilationBPHR
Spinal cord Surrounded and protected by the back bones aka spinal column
Myelopathy Disease condition of the spinal cord
Encephalomyelopathy Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord
Polio myelitis Inflammation of the spinal cord caused by the polio virus
Myelogram A record (x-ray) if the spinal cord
Myelography Process of recording (x-raying) the spinal cord
Meninges Protective membranes completely surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Dura mater Outermost meninx
Subdural space Space below the dura mater
Serous fluid Plasma like liquid
Subdural hematoma Mass of blood in the subdural space
Epidural hematoma Mass of blood above the dura mater
Arachnoid mater (spider layer) Medial meninx
Subarachnoid space Space below the arachnoid mater
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Clear fluid that circulates throughout the cerebrum and spinal canal
Subarachnoid hematoma Mass of blood in the subarachnoid space
Pia mater Innermost meninx
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) Epidural hematoma, Subdural hematoma, Subarachnoid hematoma
Intracranial Pertaining to within the cranium
Meningitis Inflammation of the meninx
Meningocele Herniation of a meninx
Meningomyelocele Herniation of the spinal cord through a meninx
Meningioma Tumor or mass of a meninx
Nervous system divisions: CNS- central nervous systemPNS- peripheral nervous system
CNS: BrainSpinal cord*damaged neurons of the CNS do not have the ability to regenerate
PNS: All nerves outside the CNS *damaged neurons of the PNS have the ability to regenerate
Herpes zoster (HZ) aka shingles Viral disease affecting the PNS causing pain and vesicular skin lesions
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) aka chickenpox Shingles only occurs to those infected with chickenpox
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) Part of the nervous system that functions automatically (involuntary)
Involuntary actions include: Ventilation (breathing)Tussis (coughing)SneezingBlinkingPeristalsisVomitingLabor and delivery (L+D)
ANS divided into: Sympathetic division (fight vs flight)Parasympathetic division (rest and digest)
Sympathetic division operates during stressful situations and causes responses include: Tachycardia (fast heart rate)Tachypnea (fast breathing)Bronchodilation (increased diameter of the bronchi)Pupillary dilation (increased diameter of the pupils) increases VFPallor (Change of color)
Parasympathetic division operates during non-stressful situations and causes responses that include: Normal HR (heart rate)Eupnea (normal breathing)Bronchoconstriction (decreased diameter of the bronchi)Digestion (break down of food)Pupillary constriction (decreased diameter of the pupils)Reproductive processes (procreation processes)
Seizure(s) Sz Associated with a neuropathy aka Epilepsy
Preictal Pertaining to before a seizure Sz
Postictal Pertaining to after a seizure Sz
Interictal Pertaining to between seizures Sz
Grand mal seizure aka convulsion Seizure characterized by body stiffening (tonic phase) followed by violent jerking (clonic phase)
Aura Premonition of an impending seizure Sz
Consciousness Awake, alert, aware
Semi- conscious Partially awake, alert,aware
LOC Loss of consciousnessLevel(s) of consciousness
LOC include: Consciousness (awake alert awareMental sluggishness (Lethargy)Extreme grogginess (Stupor)Unconscious (being unaware but response to stimuli)Coma (unconscious with no response to stimuli)
Glascow coma scale (GCS) Standardized system to assess neurological impairment
Cerebrospinal otorrhea Discharge of CSF from an ear
Sciatica Compression of a sciatic nerve in a leg causing pain and/or paralysis *sciatic nerves are part of the PNS
Intellectual disability (ID) Mental retardation (MR) Developmental disability characterized by below average IQ
Alzheimer's disease (AD) aka Dementia Progressive encephalopathy characterized by behavioral changes and loss of cognitive abilities
Cognitive abilities include MemoryJudgementLanguage skills* MCI – mild cognitive impairment (deficiency)
Disorientation State of mental confusion to person, place or time
Incoherence Inability to express one's thoughts in an understandable manner
Syncope Faint
Gait Manner or style of walking
Neurological vital sign (NVS)neuro checks Periodic assessment of a person's neurological status
Neurological vital signs include: Assessment of the client's LOCAssessment of the client's orientation of the 3 spheres (person,place,time)Assessment of PERRLA (pupils equal, round, react to light, and accommodation)Assessment of the client's gait
Positron emission tomography (PET) X-ray picture slices of the brain after IV injection of a contrast dye
AD Alzheimer's disease or right ear
MVA Motor vehicle accident
MS Multiple sclerosis
PD Parkinson's disease
CVA Cerebral vascular accident aka stroke
TIA Transient ischemic attack aka mini stroke
CP Cerebral palsy
TENS Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation*used to stimulate healing and treat chronic pain (back)
Ophthalmic Pertaining to eye(s)
Ophthalmologist Specialist in the study of eyes
Ophthalmalgia and Ophthalmodynia Pain in the eye
Ophthalmopathy Disease condition of an eye
Ophthalmoplegia Paralysis of an eye
Ophthalmitis Inflammation of an eye
Endopthalmitis Inflammation of the inner lining of an eye
Ophthalmorrhexis Rupture of an eye
Ophthalmorrhagia Rapid flow of blood from an eye
Ophthalmoscope Lighted instrument to view an eye
Ophthalmoscopy Process of using a lighted instrument to view an eye
Slit lamp Lighted instrument to shine a thin beam of high intensity light into an eye
Intraocular Pertaining to withing an eye
Ocular prosthesis Pertaining to a synthetic eye
Oculomycosis Abnormal condition of an eye caused by fungus
Binocular Pertaining to 2 eyes
Depth perception Binocular vision provides 3D vision3D: length, width, height
Blepharitis Inflammation of an eyelid
Bleharospasm Involuntary muscle contraction of an eyelid
Blepharoptosis Prolapse of an eyelid
Blepharotomy Surgical incision of an eyelid
Blepharectomy Surgical removal of an eyelid
Blepharoplasty Surgical repair of an eyelid
Blepharorrhaphy Suturing an eyelid
Conjunctiva(e) Mucous membrane(s) lining each eyelid
Conjunctivitis Inflammation of the conjunctiva aka pinkeye
Blepharoconjunctivitis Inflammation of the eyelid and conjunctiva
Conjunctivoplasty Surgical repair of a conjunctiva
Sclera(e) White opaque portion(s) of each eye
Scleritis Inflammation of a sclera
Bilateral scleritis Inflammation of both sclera
Scleroplasty Surgical repair of a sclera
Sclerotome Surgical instrument to cut scleae
Sclerotomy Surgical incision of a sclera
Sclerostomy Artificial opening in a sclera
Scleral edema Pertaining to swelling of a sclera
Cornea(s) Transparent anterior layer(s) of each eye
Keratitis Inflammation of a cornea
Corneoscleritis and sclerokeratitis Inflammation of a cornea and sclera
Corneal abrasion (CA) Mechanical superficial damage to a cornea*can be caused by a FB
Keratoplasty Surgical repair of a cornea
Bilateral keratoplasty Surgical repair of both corneas
Keratometer Instrument to measure a cornea
Keratometry Process of measuring a cornea
Iris Colored portion(s) of each eye
Iritis Inflammation of an iris
Iridoscleritis Inflammation of an iris and sclera
Corneoiritis Inflammation of a cornea and iris
Iridoplegia Paralysis of an iris
Iridalgia Pain in an iris
Iridopathy Disease condition of an iris
Iridotomy Surgical incision of an iris and sclera
Iridectomy Surgical removal of a (section) of an iris
Pupils Os in the center of each iris
Anisocoria Condition of unequal pupils*can be benign or can indicate an increased ICP (intracranial pressure)
Corectopia Condition of an uncentered pupil
Leukocoria Condition of a white pupil
Pupillometer Instrument to measure a pupil
Pupillometry Process of measuring a pupil
Pupillary dilation Pupils increase in size
Pupillary constriction Pupils decrease in size
Retinae Photoreceptive membranes lining the inside of each eyeball
Retinoma Tumor or mass of a retina
Photoretinitis Inflammation of a retinae caused by extreme light
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) Disease condition of the retinae caused by diabetes mellitus (DM)
Retinal detachment (RD) Separation of a retina from it's blood supply
Cryoretinopexy Surgical fixation of a retina by freezing
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) Genetic degeneration of the retinae
Pacitis Inflammation of a {crystalline} lens
Pharocele Herniation of a {crystalline} lens
Cataract Opaque {crystalline} lens
Phacoemulsification Surgical procedure using an ultrasonic probe or laser to emulsify and aspirate an opaque {crystalline} lens
Lacrimal Pertaining to tear(s)
Lacrimate Secretion of tears
Lactate Secretion of milk
Nasolacrimal Pertaining to the nose and lacrimal duct(s)
Dacryocystitis Inflammation of a lacrimal bladder
Dacryoadenitis Inflammation of a lacrimal gland
Dacryocystotomy Surgical incision of a lacrimal bladder
Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) Artificial opening between a lacrimal bladder and the nose
Optical Pertaining to vision
Optic neuritis Pertaining to inflammation of a vision nerve
Optometrist aka Optician Specialist in measurement of vision
Optometer, phoropter, automated refractor Instrument to measure vision
Refraction Ability of a lens to bend light (VA) visual acuity
Snellen eye chart Chart with rows of block letters decreasing in size to assess visual acuity (VA)
Emmetropia (EM) Normal vision
Optomyometer Instrument to measure eye muscle
Myopia Nearsightedness
Hyperopia Farsightedness
Nyctalopia Poor vision at night aka night blindness
Presbyopia Hyperopia resulting from aging
Diplopia Double vision
Heterotropia Abnormal alignment (deviation of) an eye aka strabismus
Exotropia Abnormal alignment of an eye outward aka wall-eyed*type of strabismus
Esotropia Abnormal alignment of and eye inward aka cross-eyed*type of strabismus
Hypertropia Abnormal alignment of an eye upward*type of strabismus
Hypotropia Abnormal alignment of an eye downward*type of strabismus
Amblyopia Poor vision associated with strabismus aka lazy eye syndrome
Orthoptics Straighten strabismus
Strabotomy Surgical incision of a muscle(s) or tendon(s) of an eye to correct strabismus
Enucleation Surgical removal of an eye
Photophobia Condition of sensitivity to light
Orbits Bony cavities of the cranium that contain and protects the eyes
Papilledema Edema and inflammation of an optic nerve*indicates increased ICP (intracranial pressure)
Nystagmus Involuntary and constant rhythmic movement of the eyeballs
Fluorescein angiography (FA) Process of recording (x-raying) blood vessels of an eye using radiopaque dye
Peripheral vision Lateral vision when looking straight ahead
Humor Transparent liquid
Intraocular pressure (IOP) Force exerted by humor within each eye*can damage optic nerves
Tonometer Instrument to measure IOP
Tonometry Process of measuring intraocular pressure (IOP)
Glaucoma Damage to the optic nerve(s) caused by increased IOP*can lead to permanent blindness if left untreated
Chalazion Obstruction of an eyelid sebaceous gland
Hordeolum aka Sty Infection of an eyelid sebaceous gland
Astigmatism (Ast) Defective curvature of a lens causing refractive difficulties
Keratomileusis Reshape cornea
Laser surgery for Keratomileusis: LASIK- laser assisted in situ keratomileusisPRK- photorefractive keratectomy
LASIK + PRK are treatments for: Myopia- nearsightednessHyperopia- farsightednessAst- astigmatism
OD Right eyeOverdose
OS Left eye
OU Both eyes
CL Contact lens
SCL Soft contact lens
HCL Hard contact lens
EWCL Extended wear contact lens
REM Rapid eye movement*REM sleep signals the onset of dreaming
PERRLA Pupils equal, round, react to light, and accommodation
Pinna(e) aka auricle(s) Cartilaginous flap(s) of external ear(s)
Otologist Specialist in the study of ears
Otitis externa (OE) Inflammation of a pinna and/or inflammation of an EAC (external auditory canal) aka swimmer's ear
Otitis media (OM) Inflammation of a middle ear aka ear infection
Otalgia and otodynia Pain in a ear aka earache
Otopyorrhea Purulent flow or discharge from an ear
Otorrhagia Rapid flow of blood from an ear
Otoscope Lighted instrument to view an ear
Otorhinolaryngologist Specialist in the study of the ears, nose, and throat
Otoscopy Process of using a lighted instrument to view an ear
Otoplasty Surgical repair of a pinna
Otopexy Surgical fixation of an ear
Aural Pertaining to an ear
Auricular piercing Pertaining to insertion of a needle through the pinna
Myringitis and tympanitis Inflammation of a tympanic membrane
Myringotomy and tympanotomy Surgical incision of a tympanic membrane
Tympanorrhexis Rupture of a tympanic membrane
Myringoplasty and tympanoplasty Surgical repair of a tympanic membrane
Tympanometer Instrument to measure the function of a tympanic membrane
Tympanometry Process of measuring the function of a tympanic membrane
Auditory neuropathy (AN) Pertaining to diease condition of a hearing nerve
Audiologist Specialist in the study of hearing
Audiogram A record of hearing
Audiometer Instrument to measure hearing
Audiometry Process of measuring hearing
Acoustic neuroma Tumor or mass of a hearing nerve
Auditory meatus and acoustic meatus Opening of each EAC
Paracusis (HL) Hearing loss aka deafness
Presbycusis Paracusis resulting from aging
Anacusis No hearing aka deafness
Labyrinth Located in the inner ear*functions of the labyrinth include hearing and balance
Labyrinthitis Inflammation of a labyrinth
Labyrinthotomy Surgical incision of a labyrinth
Labyrinthectomy Surgical removal of a labyrinth
Cochlea(e) Located in the inner ear*contain acoustic receptor cells responsible for perceiving sound
Cochlear implant (CI) Prosthesis cochlea surgically implanted to treat anacusis
Cerumenosis Abnormal condition of excessive cerumen
Cerumenolytic Break up cerumen
Process(es) Bony projection(s)*located at the inferior portion of the temporal bones
Tuning fork Metal instrument with a handle and 2 prongs placed on a mastoid process to assess conduction impairment
Mastoiditis Inflammation of a mastoid process
Otomastoiditis Inflammation of an ear and mastoid process
Mastoidotomy Surgical incision of a mastoid process
Mastoidectomy Surgical removal of a mastoid process
Eustachian tubes Bilateral ducts connecting each middle ear to the pharynx*equalizes pressure between the middle ears and the outside environment*excessive pressure in the middle ear can cause tympanorrhexis
Decibel Unit of measurement for the loudness of sound
Tinnitus Ringing and/or buzzing sensation in an ear
Conduction impairment Dysfunction of hearing structures that transmit sound vibrations
Meniere's disease (MD) Disorder of a labyrinth characterized by paracusis, vertigo, and tinnitus
ETD Eustachian tube dysfunction
HA Hearing aids
NBHS Newborn hearing screen
PET Positron emission tomographyPressure equalization tube(s)
Nervous Sys. + sense Nervous Systems + special senses

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