What is pain? What the PT feels
What is suffering? What we see
2 types of pain? nociceptive and neuropathic
What is nociceptive pain? noxious stimuli transmitted from point of cellular injury to spinal cord
What is neuropathic? pain processed abnormally by the nervous system
types of nociceptive pain? somatic and visceral
what is an example of somatic pain bug bite
deep somatic pain is cause by? trauma
example of visceral pain? broken bone
what causes visceral pain? ischemia, compression, intestinal distention, contaction
what is referred pain? pain in a general area but not exact site where organ is located
what are examples of neuropathic pain? phantom limb pain, stroke, spinal cord injury, diabetes, herpes zoster
treatment for nociceptive pain? opioids
treatment for neuropathic pain? adjuvent meds EX: gabapentin
what is acute pain? lasting less than 6 months
what is chronic pain? lasting longer that 6 months
S/S of manifestation elevated BP, HR, Resp, diaphoresis, dialated pupils, moaning, grimacing, flinching
What percent of elderly have chronic pain? 88%
Manifestations have similar symptoms to? depression
stages of pain transmission? Transduction, Transmission, Perception, Modulation
Transduction is simply what? Cellular disruption
What is a specialized pain receptor called? nociceptor
what are the 2 types of nociceptors? A-Delta Fibers, C- Fibers
what do A- delta fibers do? carry impulse fast
what are C fibers? initial throbbing or burning after pain
Chemicals that INCREASE pain transmission? Substance P, prostaglandins, bradykinin, histamines
Chemicals that DECREASE pain transmission? seratonin, endorphines
What alters transmission? NSAIDs and Acetaminophen
Factors that effects pain tolerance age, gender, fatigue, culture, anticipatory fear
hyperalgesia exaggerated pain response for no reason
allodynia exaggerated pain response EX: Sunburn
Assessment bias clients pain misunderstood
what is transmission? impulse that goes from PNS-CNS
What is perception? brain receives an impulse
What is modulation? transmits a response
what is analgesic? pain reliever
3 reasons for pain management? Reduction, Relief, and Prevention
Antihistamine hydroxyzine
anti anxiety agent diazepine
antimetics ondansetron
anticonvulsants carbamazepine, gavapentin, pregablin
tricyclic anti depressant amitriptyline
glucocorticoids dexamethasone
nutritional supplement ginko biloba
Med- Surg Chapter 11 Pain Management

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