Term Definition
Holy Land the region where the site of the Holy Temple of the Jews was locatedand where Jesus had lived and taught
Pope Urban ll Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades
Crusades a series of religious wars launched by European Christians in the Middle Ages
Saladin Muslim sultan who overthrew the Seljuk Turks and drove the Christians out of Jerusalem, leading to the third Crusade
Richard the Lion-Hearted king of England who led forces against the army of Saladin during the Third Crusade
Hanseatic League a group of cities and towns in northern Germany that worked together to promote and protect trade
credit the promise of later payment for goods bought
guilds trade organizations in which all members set standards and prices for their products
apprentice someone who spent several years with a skilled crafter to learn basic skills of the craft
journeyman a person who has learned the basics of a career as an apprentice but is still learning from masters and has not yet opened his own shop
Gothic building style that used advances in engineering to make churches taller and brighter that earlier churches
flying buttresses supports that helped hold up church walls from outside, allowing for much higher ceilings and an interior that had no columns
illumination the process of decorating a written manuscripts with pictures or designs
Hildegard of Bingen a famous medieval nun who was both a poet and a composer
troubadours wandering singers who performed epics and romances
Geoffrey Chaucer english author of the Cantercury Tales
Dante Alighieri Italian author of the Divine Comedy
Thomas Aquinas influential scholar who argued that classical ideas could be used to improve people's understanding of Christian
Scholasticism a combination of Christian faith and rational thought set fourth by Aquinas
heresy beliefs that oppose the church's officials teachings
Inquisitions legal procedures supervized by special judges who tried suspected heretics
friars members of religous orders who took vows of poverty and obedience and lived among the people to whom they preached
Hundred Years' war a war between Britain and France that began as a dispute over the throne of France
Joan of Arc peasant girl who led the French into battle during the Hundred Years' war and won several victories before she was captured, tried, and executed by the British
Wars of the Roses conflict between the York and Lancastor families for the English throne
Henry Vll nobleman whose rise to king ended the Wars of the Roses and started a new era in English history
Black Death a devastating plague that swept across Europe between 1347 and 1351

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