Term Definition
Somatic Cell cell that makes up all the body tissues and organs besides gametes
gamete sex cell, an egg or sperm cell
homologous chromosome chromosomes that have the same length, appearance, and copies of genes. although alleles may differ.
autosome chromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism
sex chromosome chromosome that directly controls the development of sexual characteristics
sexual reproduction process by which two gametes fuse together and offspring that are a genetic combination of both parents are created
fertilization fusion of an egg and sperm cell
diploid cell that has two copies of each chromosome, one from an egg and one from a sperm
haploid cell that only has one copy of each chromosome
meiosis form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells. important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction.
gametogenesis the process by which gametes are produced through the combination of meiosis and other maturational changes
sperm male gamete
egg female gamete
polar body haploid cell produced during meiosis in the female body of many species. these cells have little more than DNA and eventually disintegrate
Chapter 6

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