Term Definition
Polis A city-state of ancient Greece
Acropolis A walled high area surrounding a polis
Agora An open area that served as a meeting place and market in early Greek city-states
Helots In ancient Greece,state slaves
Hoplites foot soldiers in ancient Greece
Hubris Great pride
Democracy A government run by the people
Solon Athenian statesman;he introduced the first civil democracy in Greece and created the Boule
Tyrant A strong man who seized power by force and claimed to rule for the good of the people
Ciesthenes Ancient Greek ruler often called the father of democracy ;He increased the size of the council that governed Athens to 500.and he reorganized Athenian tribes on geographical rather than familial basis
Direct Democracy A type of governing system where all people vote directly on an issue
Archon A chief of state of ancient Athens
Phalanx A military formation composed of rows of soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder carrying pikes or heavy spears
Pericles Athenian statesman;he encouraged the spread of democracy in Athens and the growth of the city-states power
Socrates Greek philosopher of Athens ;his teaching style was based on asking asking questions.He wanted people to question their own beliefs.He was arrested and condemned to death for challenging authority
Plato Greek philosopher;a student of Socrates,he started a school in Athens called Academy.In the republic he describes an ideal society run by philosopher kings
Aristotle Greek philosopher ans student of Plato;he taught that logic was the tool for any necessary inquiry;his work later became the basis for medieval scholasticism
Reason Clear and ordered thinking
Logic The process of making inferences
Homer Greek poet,he wrote the epic poems the Iliad and the odyssey,which tell stories set during and after the Trojan war
Lyric Poetry A type of poetry that gained its name from the lyre,an instrument that played while the poetry was sung
Herodotus Greek historian;his most famous work is The Histories,which describes major events of Persian wars.
Thucydides Greek historian of Athens;He wrote The History of the Pelponnesian War.He is regarded as the first critical historian and is often ranked as the greatest historian of antiquity.
Alexander The Great King of Macedon and conqueror of Asia;he is considered one of the greatest generals of all time
Hellenistic The blending of Greek cultures with those of Persia,Egypt,and Central Asia following the conquests of Alexander the Great
Euclid Greek geometer;he created practical books on geometric forms and mathematics.His work formed the basis for later European studies in geometry
Eratosthenes Greek astronomer and geographer;he calculated the circumference of the globe using careful observations and simple geography
Archimedes Greek mathematician and inventor;he was known for his work in geometry,physics,and mechanics
Chapter 5

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