Term Definition
Old Order France's social and political structure that places the king at the top and three estates below him
King Louis XVI ruler during early years of the French Revolution
Marie-Antoinette Austrian wife of King Louis XVI, serving as queen during his reign
First Estate small, privileged class made up of roman Catholic clergy in France
Second Estate the class in France that was made up of the nobility
Third Estate the class of 97% of France, made up of the bourgeoisie, artisans, merchants, and peasants
bourgeoisie city-dwelling merchants, factory owners, and professionals
sansculottes "without knee breeches"; a nickname for workers of the Third Estate
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen document written by the National Assembly advocating equality, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion
radicals people favoring extreme change
Maximilien Robespierre Mountain member and a leader of the national Convention
guilotine an execution device that drops sharp, heavy blade through the victim's neck
counterrevolution a revolution against a government established by a revolution
Reign of Terror series of accusations, arrests and executions started by the Mountain
Napoleon Bonaparte ambitious military leader who became emperor of France
Admiral Horatio Nelson British naval commander who won the Battle of the Nile
coup d'etat a forced transfer of power
plebiscite a question put before all voters
Continental System a blockade that stopped French and allied ships form trading with Great Britain to prevent the nation from funding the rebellion against Napoleon
nationalism a sence of identity and unity as people
Czar Alexander I Russian ruler during Napoleon's failed invasion of Russia
Hundred Days brief period of renewed glory for napoleon
Duke of Wellington head of the British troops during the battle of waterloo
indemnity payment to other countries to compensate for damages caused during war
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand French Diplomat who attended the congress of Vienna on behalf of King Louis XVIII and helped ensure fairness as the new map was drawn
Prince Klemens von Metternich Austrian prince who strongly influenced policy decision-making at the Congress of Vienna
Reactionary opposing progress in hopes of conditions returning to those of earlier times
chapter 20

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