Term Definition
element a type of matter in which all the atoms are the same, they can not be broken down into simpler substances
atom the smallest unit of an element
compound two or more elements that are chemically combined
molecule the smallest unit of most compounds
organic compounds a compound that contains carbon
in-organic compound a compound that does not contain carbon
proteins large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur;they are needed for tissue growth and repair
amino acids small units that are linked together chemically to form large protein molecules
enzyme a protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the bodies of living things
carbohydrate energy rich compounds such as sugars and starches that are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
lipids energy rich organic compounds such as fats oils and waxes that are made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen
nucleic acid a very large organic molecule made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorous
DNA the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring
RNA a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
permeable to pass through
diffusion the process by which molecules tend to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosis diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
passive transport
active transport the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
photosynthesis the process by which a cell captures the energy in sunlight and uses it to make food
pigments colored chemical compounds that absorb light
chlorophyll the main green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants
stomata small openings on the undersides of leaves where carbon dioxide enters the plant
respiration process where cells break down simple food molecules such as glucose to release the energy they contain
fermentation the process where cells break down food molecules to release energy without using oxygen
alcoholic fermentation occurs when organisms such as yeast break down sugar to produce alcohol, carbon dioxide, and a small amount of energy
lactic-acid fermentation occurs when muscles lack oxygen for respiration, and use fermentation to break down sugars to produce energy carbon dioxide, and lactic acid
cell cycle a regular sequence of growth and development that cells undergo
interphase the first stage of the cell cycle where the cell grows to its mature size, makes a copy of its DNA and prepares to divide into two cells
replication the process where a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus
mitosis the second stage of the cell cycle where the cells nucleus divides into two nuclei so that one copy of the DNA is distributed into each of the new cells
cytokinesis the final stage of the cell cycle where the cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells
chapter 2 vocabulary

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *