Term Definition
Second Industrial Revolution sparked by an array of innovations and inventions in the production of metals, machinery, chemicals, and foodstuffs, and transformed the economy and society into its modern urban-industrial form
Heavy Industry made capital goods rather than consumer goods. used for building purposes like steel
New South concept promoted by southerners in the late 1800s that the south had changed dramatically and was now interested in industrial growth and becoming a part of the national economy. a large textile industry did develop in the south beginning in the 1880s
Taylorism scientific management, encouraged the development of mass production techniques and the assembly line, led to a revolution in American education of social science.
Henry Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits.
John D. Rockefeller skillful business organizer. He founded Standard Oil Company and the Standard Oil Trust, which dominated American oil refining. Like others of his ilk, he sought to stabilize his industry, reduce competition, and maximize profits.
Andrew Carnegie Carnegie organized the Carnegie Steel Company, which dominated the industry for years. In his later years he turned his time and great wealth to philanthropic pursuits.
Interstate Commerce Act -established the federal government's right to oversee railroad activities-required railroads to public their rate schedules and file them with the government
Trusts economic method that had other companies assigns their stocks to the board of trust who would manage them. made the corporate leader wealthy, and at the same time killed off competitors not in the trust. used by Rockefeller, and helped him become famous
Horizontal Integration A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. An act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth.
Holding Company company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control operations in electing/infulencing board of directors
Vertical Integration a type of business organization in which a single company owns and controls entire process of production of a commodity from production of raw materials to the manufacture and sale of the finished product.
Social Darwinism This was a belief held by many that stated that the rich were rich and the poor were poor due to natural selection in society. This was the basis of many people who promoted a laissez fairee style of economy.
"Gospel of Wealth" Essay written by Andrew Carnegie.-Promoted Social Darwinism-Wealth among the few was the natural and most efficient result of capitalism-Great wealth brought responsibility
Knights of Labor welcomed unskilled and semiskilled workers, including women, immigratns, and African Americans;were idealists who believed they could eliminate conflict between labor and managements.
Haymarket Square home to Knights anarchists. advocated overthrow of the gov't, tensions had been building. Chicago police went to meeting that had been called to protest brutalities by authorities when a dynamite bomb was thrown, killing or injuring several dozen people.
American Federation of Labor a union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.
Anarchy an advocate of a political theory favoring the abolition of governments
Homestead Strike was against the Homestead Steel Works, part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
Pullman Strike strike by railroad workers upset by drastic wage cuts. led by socialist Eugene Deb. not supported by the American Federation of Labor. Pres. Cleveland intervened. fed. troops forced end.
Industrial Workers of the World This radical union aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.
Consumer Society society where the buying and selling of goods and services is the most important thing all americans could afford
"New Immigrants" poorer than those in america earlier. that and the language barrier made it hard for them to fit into american society
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 prohibited new chinese laborers from entering the u,s.
Bessemer Steel allowed for the price of steel to drop dramatically and for its production to be done with relative ease. The process involved blowing cold air on red-hot iron in order to ignite the carbon and eliminate impurities.
Gilded Age The time of economic growth, the second industrial revolution, urbanization, immigration, and political/economic corruption.era of forgotten presidentsCongress and Business were more important than the pres
Spoils System Jackson's patronage system, which allowed men to buy their way into office. This resulted in a very corrupt governmental office.
James Garfield Elected President in the Election of 1880; After being elected he was assassinated, and Chester Arthur, took his place.
Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
Grover Cleveland 22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strike
Coxey's Army Supporters of Jacob Coxey who in 1894 marched on Washington, demanded that the government create jobs for the unemployed; although this group had no effect whatsoever on policy, it did demonstrate the social and economic impact of the Panic of 1893.
Political Machine political entities controlled by a boss that ielded enormous influence over the government of urban cities.Very corrupt, controlled tax rates, gave tax breaks to their allies and controlled prices and business, etc.stole millions from taxpayers
Tammany Hall a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
Boss Tweed used bribes, graft, and rigged elections to mooch money and ensure continual power for himself and his buddies
Looking Backward a utopian novel, published in 1888, it described the experiences of a young Bostonian who went into a hypnotic sleep in 1887 and awoke in 2000, finding a new social order in which want, politics and vice were unknown.
How the Other Half Lives -a book by John Riis that told the public about the lives of the immigrants and those who live in the tenements. Riis's fame helped home press the city to improve living conditions for the poor and to build parks and schools.
Chapter 18: 5 steps History

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