Question Answer
Crusades a series of wars carried out by European Christians to gain control of the Holy Land from their Muslim rulers
Holy Land region that included Jerusalem and the area around it, considered holy by Jews, Christians, and Muslims
Pope Urban II Leader of the Roman Catholic who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting crusades
Saladin Muslim sultan and hero; he campaigned to drive the Christians from the Holy Land. He stopped an army of crusaders under Richard the Lion-Hearted of England.
Richard the Lion-Hearted King of England from 1189 to 1119; he fought in the Holy Land against Saladin during the Third Crusade . He eventually ceased fighting and returned to England.
Hanseatic League an organization of north-German cities and towns that organized and controlled trade throughout northern Europe from the 1200s through the1400s
credit an arrangement by which a purchaser borrows money from a bank or other lender and agrees to pay it back over time
guilds associations of people who worked at the same craft or trade during Middle Ages
apprentice a person who learns a skill under the master of trade
journeyman a skilled worker who was paid wages by the master of guild
Gothic a style of church architecture developed during the 1100s characterized by tall spires and flying buttresses
flying buttress an arched stone support on the outside of buildings, which allows builders to construct higher walls
illumination the process of decorating a written manuscript with pictures and designs
Hildegard of Bingen Medieval nun and author; she wrote dozens of poems and music to accompany them.
troubadours traveling singers who entertained people through the Middle Ages
Geoffrey Chaucer English poet; he wrote The Canterbury Tales, 23 stories of pilgrims assembled at the Tarbard Inn Southwark
Dante Aligheri Italian poet and humanist; he was the author of The Divine Comedy, one of the greatest literary classics
Thomas Aquinas An Italian philosopher and theologian; he argued that rational thought could be used to support Roman Catholic belief.
Scholasticism in the Middles Ages, the theological and philosophical school of thought that attempted to reconcile faith and reason
heresy an opinion that goes against the teachings of the church
Inquisitions institution of the Roman Catholic Church that sought to eliminate heresy by seeking out and punishing heretics; especially active in Spain in the later 1400s and 1500s
friars members of certain Roman Catholic religious orders; first prominent in the Europe of the late Middle Ages; unlike monks; friars preached in towns
Hundred Years? War war fought between France and England for control of the french throne marked the end
Joan of Arc French solider and national heroine; she rallied the French troops during Hundred Years? War and was burned at the stake for heresy.
Wars of the Roses civil war for the English crown between the york (white rose) and Lancaster ( red rose ) families
Henry VII King of England; he was first king from the house of Tudor; his defeat of Richard III and his assumption of the throne marked
Black Death a terrible outbreak of bubonic plague that swept through Europe, beginning in 1347
Chapter 14

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