Term Definition
Crusades a series of religious wars launched by european christians in the middle ages
Holy Land the region where the site of the holy temple of the jew was located and where jesus had lived and taught
Pope Urban 2nd leader of the roman catholic church who asked european christians to take up arms against muslims starting the crusades
Saladin muslim sultan who overthrew the seljuk turks and drove christians out of jerusalem leading to the third crusade
Richard the Lion-Hearted king of england who led forces against the army of saladin during the third crusade
Hanseatic League a group of cities and towns in nothern germany that worked together to promote and protect trade
Credit the promise of later payment for goods bought
guilds trade organizations in which all members set standards and prices for their products
apprentice someone who spent several years with a skilled crafter to learn basic skills of the craft
journeyman a person who has learned that basics of a career as an apprentice butis still learning from masters and has not yet opened his own shop
gothic buliding style that used advances in engineering to make churches taller and brighter than earlier churches
flying buttresses supports that helped hold up church walls from the outside allowing for much higher ceilings and an interior that had no columns
illumination the process of decorating a written manuscipt with pictures or designs
hildegard of bingen a famous medeval nun who was both a poet and a composer
troubadours wandering singers who performed epics and romances
geoffrey chaucer english author of canterbury comedy
dante alighieri italian author of the divine comedy
thomas aquinas influential scholar who argued that classical ideas could be used to improve peoples understanding of christian teaching
scholasticism a combination of christian faith and rational thought set fouth by aquinas
heresy beliefs that oppose the official church teachings
inquisitions legal procedures supervised by special judges who tried suspect heretics
friars members of religious orders who took vows of poverty and obedience and lived along people that preached
hundred years war a war between britian and france that began as a dispute over the throne of france
joan of arc peasant girl who led the french into battle during the hundreds years war and won several victories
wars of the roses conflict between the york and lancaster families for the englich throne
henry VLL nobleman whose rise to king ended the wars of the roses and started a new era in english history
black death a devastating plague that swept across europe between 1347 and 1351
chapter 14

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *