Term Definition
Charlemagne King of Franks from 768 to 814;He united much of France, Germany and northern Italy in one Frankish empire;crowned emperor of the Roman people in 800
Papal States Territories in central Italy controlled by the pope from 750-1870
Counts In Charlemagne's empire,chosen officials ruled parts of the empire in his name
Navigation the guidance of ships from place to place
Sagas Long stories,written in early 1200s,about great Icelandic heroes and events
Leif Eriksson Viking who led settlers to the eastern shores of what is now Canada
Knights In medieval Europe,nobles who were members of a lords heavily armored cavalry
Fief A grant land from a lord to a vassal
Vassal In medieval Europe,a person granted land from a lord in return for services
Feudal System A political and social system based on the granting of land in exchange for loyalty,military assistance and other services
Fealty The loyalty owed by a vassal to his feudal lord
Manorial System An economic system in the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors
Serfs Peasants who legally bound to their lords land
Alfred the Great King of Wessex from 871 to 899;he defeated the Danish invaders and united Anglo Saxon England under his control. He emplfied a code of laws and promoted learning
William the Conqueror King of England from 1060 to 1087;He was a powerful French noble who conquered England and brought feudalism to England
Domesday Book the written record of English land owners and their property made by order of William the conqueror in 1085-1086
Eleanor of Aquataine Queen of France and England;she was one of the most women on Europe during the Middle Ages.
Magna Carta A charter agreed to by King John of England that granted nobles certain rights and restricted the king's powers
Parliament the governing body of England
Hugh Capet King of France from 987 to 996;elected by the Frankish nobles to succeed King Louis V,founded the Capetian dynasty,which ruled France for 300 years.
Otto the Great King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor;he defeated the Magyar army,which ended the Magyar raids in the mid-900s
Reconquista The effort of Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain,occurring between the 1100s and 1492
Piety Devotion to one religion
Pontificate Papal term in office
Pope Gregory VII Pope who excommunicated Henry IV,showing that a pope could stand up to the emperor
Henry IV King of France from 1589 to 1610;he issued the Edict of Nantes,which permitted protestant worship,in order to restore peace to France
Chapter 13

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