Question Answer
What is an omnivore? An omnivore is an organism that consumes both plants and animals e.g. Humans
What is a carnivore? A carnivore is an organism that consumes animals e.g. Lion
What is a herbivore? An organism that consumes plant material only e.g. Rabbit
What is an autotroph? An autotroph is an organism that can make it's own food e.g. Plant
What is a heterotroph An organism that cannot make its own food and must obtain it from other organisms e.g. Human
What is a balanced diet? A balanced diet is a diet that contains all of the different food types in the correct proportions
List the associated glands in the digestive system Salivary glandLiverGall bladderPancreas
Name the two parts of the small intestine and indicate what occurs in each section Duodenum – digestion still occurs between the villi Ileum – absorption of nutrients into the blood
Give the main function of the large intestine Reabsorb water
List the parts of the large intensities Colon, caecum, appendix, rectum, anus
What is lipase? Lipase is a biological enzyme that breaks down lipids into fatty acids & glycerol
Name the part of the alimentary canal that secretes lipase Pancreas
What is the approximate pH of the pancreas? Is this alkaline, neutral or acidic? 7-9, alkaline.
Write out the dental formula for an adult human with a full set of teeth. 2 (I 2/2 C 1/1 M 2/2 P 3/3)
In what structure of the ileum does peristalsis take place? Muscular wall
Name the glands that pass their secretions into the small intestine Liver Pancreas Gall bladder
What are symbiotic bacteria? Symbiotic bacteria are bacteria that live IN or ON another organism in which both benefit
List the functions of symbiotic bacteria in the alimentary canal Produce B vitamins and vitamin KCompete with pathogenic bacteria that cause harm May help in the digestion of cellulose Inhibits the growth of cancer cells
Where in the alimentary canal does the most water absorption take place? Colon (large intestine also acceptable)
What is digestion? Digestion is the breakdown of food
Why is digestion necessary? Digestion is necessary for materials to be absorbed into the blood / for solubility
What is mechanical digestion? The physical breakdown of food e.g. Tearing / chewing food in the mouth using the teeth
What is chemical digestion? The breakdown of food using enzymes e.g. Amylase in the mouth
Give the functions of bile Neutralise chyme from the stomach Emulsify lipids into fat droplets
Where is bile produced? Liver
Where is bile stored? Gall bladder
Give the functions of the liver Production of bile Break down toxic substances e.g. Drugs / Alcohol Break down amino acids (deamination) Storage of fat vitamins (D, E, K, A)Heat generation
Name the substances transported to the liver by the blood in the hepatic portal vein Amino acids, glucose, carbon dioxide
Name the blood vessel that brings oxygenated blood to the liver Hepatic artery
Name the structures in the alimentary canal that are involved in the physical breakdown of food Teeth, tongue, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine
Name the part of the digestive system where the products of digestion are absorbed into the blood Ileum (villi / small intestine accepted)
Name a process involved in the passage of the products of digestion into the blood Diffusion / Passive transport
How is the ileum / small intestine adapted for the absorption of the products of digestion Large surface area / good blood supply / good lymph supply to transport lipids / thin walled, only one cell thick / prescience of microvilli to enhance efficiency of absorbtion
Name the carbohydrate digesting enzymes in the alimentary canal Amylase (maltase / sucrase accepted)
Where in the alimentary canal does amylase act? Mouth
What are the end products when amylase acts on starch? Maltose
What is the pH of the mouth? 7
What is the pH of the stomach? 1-2
What food types are absorbed by the lacteal? Lipids / Fats / Oils
What liquid is present in the lacteal? Lymph
What is peristalsis? It is a wave of muscular action in the walls of the alimentary canal that moves the contents along
Why is fibre important for the digestive system? Stimulates peristalsis / bulk movement of food / prevents constipation / helps prevent bowel cancer
What are the products of protein digestion? Amino acids
What are the products of carbohydrate digestion? Monosaccharides
What is a protease? Protein digesting enzyme e.g. Pepsin
Why is a low pH in the stomach necessary? Kill bacteria, fungi, germs / optimum pH for enzymes / digestion of fibrous foods
What is the role of mucus in the stomach? Prevents the stomach from digesting itself
Ch. 28 Human Nut.

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