Term Definition
fertile crescent a region of rich farmland that curves from the mediterranean sea to the persian gulf centered on the area between the tigris and euphrates rivers.
mesopotamia the area that lies between the tigris and euphrates rivers in southwest asia.
ziggurat a sumerian temple made of sun-dried brick that was dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a particular city-state.
city-state a political unit that includes a town or a city and the surrounding land controlled by it.
polytheism the belief of many gods.
dynasty a family of rulers whose right to rule is hereditary.
cuneiform sumerian writing.
sargon king of akkad in mesoptamia; he is considered the founder of mesopotamia and conquered many cities along the middle euphrates to northern syria.
hammurabi king of babylonia; he was a brilliant military leader who brought all of mesopotamia into the babylonian empire. he is known for his uniform code of 282 laws, the earliest known set of written laws.
indo-europeans a group of semi-nomadic people who migrated from sothern russia to the indian subcontinent around 1700 bc
steppes arid grassland
nebuchadnezzar ll chaldean king of babylon from 605 to 562 bc; he rebuilt babylon into a beautiful city noted for it famed hanging garden
judaism a monotheistic religion originating with the israelites
torah the first five books of the hebrew bible; the most sacred texts of the jewish faith
abraham according to the bible,the originator the jewish line
covenant a binding agreement
patriarch an ancestral ''father'' of judasim
moses hebrew prophet and lawgiver; according to the bible
exodus the escape of the hebrews from egypt
diaspora the dispersal of the jews from their homeland in palestine during the 2,600
monotheism the belief in one god
cyrus the great king of persia and founder of the persian empire
darius l he was a new leader for persia
satrap to help rule, darius choose governors
xerxes he's an emperor and he is also the son of darius
zoroaster a new region started after the persian he found a religion known as zoroastrianism based on the idea that people have free will
dualism the belief that the world is controlled by two forces good and evil

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