Term Definition
holy land 1A region on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, in what is now Israel and Palestine
pope urban ll Pope Urban II, born Odo of Chatillon or Otho de Lagery, was Pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099
crusades The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
saladin An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin, was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty
richard the lion-hearted Richard I was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death.
hanseatic league The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hanse or Hansa; Middle Low German: Hanse
credit the ability of a customer to obtain goods or services before payment, based on the trust that payment will be made in the future.
guilds a medieval association of craftsmen or merchants, often having considerable power.
apprentice An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study.
journeyman A journeyman is a skilled worker who has successfully completed an official apprenticeship qualification in a building trade or craft.
gothic relating to the Goths or their extinct East Germanic language, which provides the earliest manuscript evidence of any Germanic language
flying buttresses a buttress slanting from a separate pier, typically forming an arch with the wall it supports.
illumination lighting or light
hildegard of bingen Hildegard of Bingen, O.S.B., also known as Saint Hildegard and Sibyl of the Rhine
troubadours a French medieval lyric poet composing and singing in Provencal in the 11th to 13th centuries, especially on the theme of courtly love.
geoffrey chaucer Geoffrey Chaucer, known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
dante alighieri Durante degli Alighieri, simply called Dante, was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
thomas aquinas Saint Thomas Aquinas OP was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
heresy belief or opinion contrary to orthodox religious (especially Christian) doctrine.
inquisitions a period of prolonged and intensive questioning or investigation.
friars A friar is a member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century
hundred years'war The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet
joan of arc Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orleans", is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.
wars of the roses The Wars of the Roses were a series of wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet
henry vll Henry VII was King of England from seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, and the first monarch of the House of Tudor.
black death The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history,

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