Term Definition
charlemagne Charlemagne or Charles the Great, numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768,
papal states They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Italian Peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
counts take into account; include.
navigation the process or activity of accurately ascertaining one's position and planning and following a route.
sagas a long story of heroic achievement, especially a medieval prose narrative in Old Norse or Old Icelandic.
leif eriksson Leif Erikson or Leif Ericson was a Norse explorer from Iceland. He was the first known European to have discovered continental North America, before Christopher Columbus
knights A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity.
fief an estate of land, especially one held on condition of feudal service.
vassal a holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allegiance.
feudal system In a feudal system, a peasant or worker known as a vassal received a piece of land in return for serving a lord or king
fealty a feudal tenant's or vassal's sworn loyalty to a lord.
manorial system Manorialism, also called manorial system, seignorialism, or seignorial system
serfs an agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate.
alfred the great Alfred the Great was King of Wessex from 871 to 899. Alfred successfully defended his kingdom against the Viking attempt at conquest
william the conqueror William I, usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard
domesday book Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror
eleanor of aquitaine Eleanor of Aquitaine was Queen consort of France and England and Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right
magna carta Magna Carta Libertatum, commonly called Magna Carta, is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative, elected body of government. Generally
hugh capet Hugh Capet was the first King of the Franks of the House of Capet from his election in 987 until his death.
otto the great Otto I, traditionally known as Otto the Great, was German king from 936 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 962 until his death in 973. He was the oldest son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda
reconquista The Reconquista describes the period of history of the Iberian Peninsula spanning approximately 780 years between the Islamic conquest of Hispania in 711
piety the quality of being religious or reverent.
pope gregory vll Gregory VII, born Hildebrand of Sovana, was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085
pontificate express one's opinions in a way considered annoyingly pompous and dogmatic.
henry lv Henry IV, also known as Henry of Bolingbroke, was King of England

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