Term Definition
energy the ability to do work or cause change; can be stored in chemicals found in food and released to the organism to do work
chemical energy the energy that is stored in the bonds between atoms
ATP compound used by cells to store and release energy; primary energy source for all cells
ADP compound used with the addition of another phosphate group and energy to produce more adenosine triphosphate
Law of Conservation of Energy energy is neither created nor destroyed, it can be transferred from one object to another or transformed from one form to another
exergonic reaction a chemical reaction in which energy is released usually in the form of heat
endergonic reaction a chemical reaction in which energy is absorbed
autotroph organism that is able to capture the energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from simple substances
heterotroph an organism that cannot make its own food from simple substances but instead must find and consume its food
chloroplast an organelle in plant and algae cells that converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy that the plant can use
chlorophyll a green pigment found in photosynthetic organisms
pigment light-absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the sun's energy
light reactions set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH,; water is taken in and oxygen is given off
Calvin Cycle the carbon-fixing reaction in photosynthesis, also known as the dark or light-independent reactions; uses ATP and NADPH produced in the light reactions to incorporate the carbon from carbon dioxide into carbohydrates
thylakoids flat membrane-enclosed structures inside chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll and other pigments; they are the site for the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
stroma the fluid portion of the chloroplast that surrounds the stacks of thylakoids
solar energy radiant energy that comes from the Sun
photosynthesis the biological process by which most plants, some algae, and some bacteria produce organic compounds for their food from water and carbon dioxide using solar energy
photosynthesis equation 6CO2 + 6H2O + light>C6H12O6 + 6O2
cellular respiration the process that occurs when the chemical energy of "food" molecules, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, is released and partially captured in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
aerobic a cellular process that uses oxygen to release energy
Glycolysis the first set of reactions in cellular respiration in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Electron Transport Chain series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions
Krebs Cycle second stage of cellular respiration in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
mitochondria cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
anaerobic a cellular process that uses no oxygen
cellular respiration equation C6H12O6 + 6O2–> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
Cell Energy

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