Term Definition
functional group R group
hydroxyl group OHhydrogen bonded to oxygenfound in alchoholpolar
phosphate group polar head of a phospholipidphosphorus atom bonded to 4 oxgenfound in phospholipids/nucleic acids/atp
phosphate groups charge? strong negative charge
phosphate group hydrophobic or phillic? hydrophillic
methyl group carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atomsCH3
methyl group phobic or philic hydrophobic
methyl group polar or non polar non polar
carboxyl group c=ocarbon double bonded to an oxygenANDsingle bonded to a hydroxy group (OH)
carboxyl group phobic or phillic hydrophillic
amino group nitrogen bonded to two hydrogen atomsNH2often acts as base, picking up hydrogensfound in a ino acids
amino group phobic or phillic? hydrophilic
sulfhydryl group sulfer bonded to a hydrogenSHfound in amoino acidsdisulfide bridge
sulfhydryl group polar non polar polar
sulfhydryl group phillic phobic hydrophillic
monomer small moleculessubunit of polymer
polymer made of multiple monomers through dehydration synthesislarge molecules made of smaller subunits (monomers)
dehydration synthesis taking away watersticking of monomers together in covalent bond
hydrolysis water is consumer during reaction/ adding water back into the sytemthis causes monomers to split
lysis: to break to split
carbohydrate made of monosaccharides and polysaccharides
you know its a carbohydrate if it ends in? ose
carbohydrate contains what elements CHO
cabohydrate phillic or phobic hydrophillic
monosaccharidechemical formula? glucose and fructosethe 2 monomersCH2O
disaccharide formed of two monomersspecifically sugar molecules?also said as two monosaccharides
polysaccharide many monomers/ monosaccharideslong chains of linked monosaccharidespolymers of glucose….starchglycogencellulose
glycogen polymer of glucose used by animals for food storage
starch polymer of glucose used by plants for food storage
cellulose polymer of glucose that forms plant cell walls
lipidcontains? fats oilsCHOPsometimesNtriglycerides
fatty acid2 types? long carbon skeletonat one end of skeleton carbon is part of carboxyl grouprest of skeleton made of hydrogen carbon chainsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids
fatty acids phobic or phillic hydrophobic
fat saturated fatty acidconstructed of two kinds of smaller moleculesglycerol and fatty acids
oil contian unsaturated fatty acidsused by plants
sterol cholesterola steroid group
triglyceride 3 fatty acid chains bonded to a glycerolchains mad up of CH ending in Carboxyl group (C=O)
triglycerideshow to determine if its saturated or unsaturated depend on types of fatty acids found
saturated fatty acid at room temp single bond between all Carbon (C) ALWAyssolid at room temp
unsaturated fatty acidroom temp single AND double bonds between Carbon (C)liquid at room temp
phospholipid likes to different things (amphipathic)hasfatty acid tailsglycerolphosphate groupcholinepolar / hydrophillic headnonpolar/ hydrophobic tails
phospholipid bi layer cell membranelooks liquid and oily in microscopetails join together
amino acid named for their amino group and carboxyl groupFunctional groups (R groups) bonded to central carbon atomall amino acids have R group
what does the R group in an amino acid decide the characteristics of the amino acid
peptide bondforms? covalent bond between amino acids if 2: di—-if 3: tri— peptide if many: polly–
peptide bonds due to what? dehydration synthesis
R group Residual groupgroup that decides individual characteristics of an amino acid
polypeptide resulting covalent bond formed by dehydration synthesis so a carboxyl and amino group can join a chain of amino acids
proteinmade of? most abundant biological molecule in cellsstructure directly related to their functionpolymers made of amino acid monomers
(protein) primary structure string of amino acidshelp together by peptide bonds(when corboxyl group reacts with amino group)slightest change in sequence affects protiens ability to functionall levels of structure dependent on promary structure
(protien) secondary structureheld together by?sahpes? primary structure folded on itselfresults in coiling and or folding of polypeptideheld together by hygrogen bondsalpha helix / beta pleated sheet
(protein) tertiary structure 3 dimentional polypeptide folding on itselfheld together by interractions between R groupsnon polar R groups cluster on insidepolar R groups on outside of protein hydrogen bondingalso disulfide bridges (S-S) covalent bond between sulfhydryl R grou
(Protein) Quaternary structure made of multiple polypeptide chainsmade of multiple tertiary structuresheld together with disulfide bridges and hydrogen bonding
denaturation polypeptide chains can lose shape and their function under "non-idea" conditionsprotiens can be denatured by:pHTemperaturechanges in salt concentration ( ion concentration)
when a polypeptide is in its final form it is then a? protein
nucleotideits 3 parts 5 carbon sugaramino group/ hydroxyl group/ phosphate groupa nitrogenous base
nitrogenous base adenineguaninecytosine(DNA)thymine(RNA)uracil
adenine guaninecontain? 2 fused carbon – nitrogen rings
cytosineuracilthyminecontains? a single carbon- nitrogen ring
DNAmade ofbonded by double stranded moleculeeach strand has sugar – phosphate backbonenitrogenous bases extend into interior a-tc-gapple to tree car to garagetwo polynucleotide strands for double helixbonded by hydrogen
RNA contains 5 carbon sugarnitrogenous basephosphate groupg-ca-ugarage to carapple to uglysingle stranded moleculepolynucleotides
deoxyribose the sugar in DNAlacks an Oxygen atom on the second carbon in the ring (hence de-oxy)
ribose sugar in RNA
double helix shape of DNAtwo polynucleotides wrapping around each other on imaginary axis
antiparalell parallel but running in opposite directions
sugar phosphate bacbone structural component of DNAconsists of5 carbon deoxyribose sugars and phosphate groups
explain why carbon is an important part of the structure of organic compounds it is versatile and can form 4 covalent bondsplentiful on earthproperties of it make backbone of organic moleculesits a small atom that will bond readily with multiple things
distinguish between monomers and polymersdescribe the monomers of the biological polymers polymers are made from monomersdone through dehydration synthesishydrolysis adds water back in splitting polymer back to individual monomers
describe the general formula of a carbohydratelist and explain the major uses of a carbohydrate in cells containsCHOused for energyenergy storagestructure
differentiate between monosaccharides/ disaccharides / and polysaccharides mono: one sugar moleculedi: the combining of two sugar molecules / 2 monomers / 2 monosaccharidespoly: formed from many monomersmain poly examplesstarch glycogencellulose
explain why glycogen , starch, and celulose have different properties they preform different functionsthey all have different R groupsthese R groups dictate their function
describe the structure and function of lipids in cells non polarcontain CHOPsometimesNfunctions:energyenergy storagestructurehormones
explain why lipids are hydrophobic non polar and have full electron shellsthey do not want to react with anything elsepolar headsrepel water
explain and describe the differences between a saturated and an unsaturated fat.describe how these differences affect the properties of lipids saturated fats are solid at room tempalways have only one double covalent bond with carbonunsaturated fats liquid at room temphave single tri or poly or 1 2 or 3 double covalent bonds with carbon
write a hydroxyl group OH
write a carboxy group COOH
write an acidic group NH2
write a sulfhydryl group SH
write a methyl group CH3
carbohydrates contain CHO
lipids contain CHOPsometimesN
proteins contain CHONS
nucleic acids contain CHOPN
monomers of carbohydrates monosaccharide
monomers of lipids triglyceridefatty acidsglycerolphosphate group
monomers of proteins amino acids
monomers of nucleic acids nucleotides
name of polymers or macromolecules of carbohydrates polysaccharidesdisaccharides
name of polymers or macromolecules of lipids triglyceridephospholipids
name of polymers or macromolecules of proteins polypeptide
name of polymers or macromolecules of nucleic acids polynucleotide
examples of corbohydrates monomers:glucosefructosepolymers:starch glycogencellulose
examples of lipids triglyceridesfats oilssteroidswaxes
examples of proteins muslcleenzymesantibodieshemoglobin
examples of nucleic acids DNARNA
functions of carbohydrates energy sourceenergy storagestructure
functions of lipids energy storageenergy sourcestructurehormones
function of protiens speeds up chemical reactionsimmunitycell structure
function of nucleic acids protein synthesisheredity
interaction with water (carbohydrates)phobic or phillic hydrophilic
interraction with water ( lipids)phobic or phillic hydrophobic
interaction with water ( proteins)phobic or phillic both
interaction with water ( nucleic acids)phobic or phillic hydrophilic
bio module 3

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