Question Answer
1. Describe the composition of Earth’s atmosphere. (Include the percentages of gases.) 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other (argon, water vapor, and carbon dioxide)
2. Name the 5 layers in order from lowest to highest altitude. Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere
3. How does the temperature differ between the layers? As altitude increases, temperature in the: Troposphere decreases, Stratosphere increases, Mesosphere decreases, Thermosphere increases, Exosphere decreases
4. How does the air pressure differ from layer to layer? Air pressure decreases as altitude increases.
5. What is the ozone layer and where is it located? The ozone layer is a protective layer found in the Stratosphere that blocks harmful Ultra-Violet light.
Precipitation rain, sleet, snow, or hail that falls to the ground
Evaporation when water is moved from the Earth into the air
Condensation when water vapor changes from a gas to a liquid stat as it is cooled
transpiration plants lose water out of their leaves and it evaporates
Runoff water being moved from Earth’s surface to oceans
7. Define relative humidity. How does temperature of the air effect how much water vapor it can hold? The amount of moisture in the air compared to how much moisture it could hold at a particular temperature. The warmer the temperature the more water vapor air can hold.
8. What is an air mass? A large body of air with similar temperature and moisture content.
9. List the 4 types of air masses and the characteristics of each. Maritime Tropical (mT): humid and warmMaritime Polar (mP): humid and coldContinental Tropical (cT): dry and warmContinental Polar (cP): dry and cold
10. What is a front? A boundary between different air masses.
11. What are the 4 types of fronts and how do they form? Warm Front: warm air mass slowly moves over cold, denser airCold Front: cold air mass violently crashes under a warm air massStationary Front: cold air mass meets a warm air mass and remains separate Occluded Front: warm air mass gets caught between
12. How are hurricanes formed? Hurricanes form over warm water in low pressure systems
13. How are tornados formed? Tornados form over land in an unstable atmosphere
14. Explain the differences between weather and climate. Weather: conditions of a certain area over a short period of timeClimate: average conditions of an area over a long or extended period of time
Barometer: measures air pressure
16. What kind of weather is associated with each of the four fronts? a. Warm Front: drizzly rain, followed by clear/warm temperatures
16. What kind of weather is associated with each of the four fronts? b. Cold Front: thunderstorms, heavy rain/snow, followed by cool temperatures
16. What kind of weather is associated with each of the four fronts? c. Stationary Front: cloudy, wet weather
16. What kind of weather is associated with each of the four fronts? d. Occluded Front: cool temperatures with large amounts of rain and snow
17. How are low pressure systems different than high pressure systems? High pressure systems bring clear, calm weather (happy weather)Low pressure systems bring clouds and stormy weather (lousy weather)
18. Identify and describe the appearance of each of the 3 main types of clouds. Cirrus – thin and wispy; made of ice crystals
18. Identify and describe the appearance of each of the 3 main types of clouds. Stratus – grey layered clouds that cover most of the sky
18. Identify and describe the appearance of each of the 3 main types of clouds. Cumulus – white and puffy clouds
19. What does nimbo or nimbus mean? rain
20. Define the 3 types of atmospheric heating and give one example of each. Conduction: the transfer of heat by direct contact; ex. A metal spoon getting hot when place in a hot cup of coffee
20. Define the 3 types of atmospheric heating and give one example of each. Convection: the transfer of heat by the movement/circulation of a liquid or a gas; ex. Your house being heated by a furnace
20. Define the 3 types of atmospheric heating and give one example of each. Radiation: the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves; ex. A light bulb warming a lamp shade
21. What is a convection current? The circular movement of warm air rising and cold air sinking
22. What causes winds? Differences in air pressure caused by the uneven heating of the Earth
23. Name the 5 types of global winds and list the characteristics of each. Polar Easterlies: poles-60 degrees North and South latitude; winds blow from the East to the West
23. Name the 5 types of global winds and list the characteristics of each. Doldrums: at the equator, air rises, low pressure, little wind
23. Name the 5 types of global winds and list the characteristics of each. Trade Winds: 30-0 degrees North and South latitude; winds blow from the East to the West
23. Name the 5 types of global winds and list the characteristics of each. Horse Latitudes: 30 degrees North and South latitude, air sinks, high pressure, little wind
23. Name the 5 types of global winds and list the characteristics of each. Prevailing Westerlies: 30-60 degrees North and South latitude; winds blow from the West to the East
24. What is the difference between global and local winds? Local winds travel short distances and blow in any direction
25. Explain the Coriolis effect. The rotation of the Earth causes winds to curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
26. What is the jet stream and why is it important? A narrow belt of high speed wind; can help meteorologists to know the location of storms and track weather patterns
27. Describe the greenhouse effect. The process by which gases in the atmosphere absorb thermal energy and radiate it back to Earth
28. What are some greenhouse gases that lead to global warming? Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Water Vapor
29. What are direct pollutants? List examples of direct pollutants. Pollutants that are put directly into the air by human or natural sources; examples include pollen, car exhaust, smoke from factories, dust, etc.
30. What are indirect pollutants? List examples of indirect pollutants. Pollutants that are created when direct pollutants react with one another or a natural source; examples include ozone, haze, acid rain, smog, etc.
31. What are the causes and effects of acid rain? Causes: burning fossil fuels, deforestationEffects: decreases nutrient levels in soil, increased pH in lakes and streams, kills large populations of fish, deteriorates buildings, etc.
32. What is global warming? How are we, as humans, contributing to it? sea levels to rise. The average increase of temperature around the globe. We are releasing pollutants into the atmosphere which is increasing the CO2 levels causing the temperatures an
33. Give examples of short and long term effects of air pollution. Short term effects: coughing, difficulty breathing, irritated throat, headachesLong term effects: asthma, lung cancer, chronic respiratory problems
34. Who monitors air pollution in our country? EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
Thermometer : measures temperature
Anemometer : measures wind speed
Wind sock/vane: measures wind direction
hygrometers an instrument for measuring the humidity of the air or a gas
7th science

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